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I was wondering whether "Best 4" is followed in chemistry or "First 4". My biology teacher told me that they won't be checking any extra questions attempted in Biology from this time around. Does it apply to Chem ? Does it apply to Bio in the first place!!??
asked by Prateek Pradhan (prateek235) 2 hours ago

+ 2 more questions by prateek235  

Holier than thou: Thoughts on the festival of colours (?)

Hello, reader. In all probability, you are a tenthie (wow Saksham, what a prediction!). Also, that means you are preparing (trying to prepare) for your chemistry exam, which the people at CISCE have been kind enough to schedule right after Holi. Some people are already beginning to trace this decision to Mr. Modi's decision of buying Rafale aircraft, and I would not be surprised if Mr. Rahul were to be found sitting on a dharna on Res in the coming days.

So, chances are (again) that most of you are distressed at the loss of the opportunity to celebrate Holi. The present article (?) is an attempt to feed two birds with one scone ( I don't want to kill birds with stones :P) : one, to alleviate your distress and two, to give you some semblance of entertainment in the midst of all the chemistry that has conspired to run riot in your brain.

Holi is (was?) a holy festival. Traditionally, I should have been writing the standard essay on how it is the festival of colours with people sharing sweets and wishes. I would rather die than voice such improbable and fanciful imaginative thoughts. The only colours visible are varying hues of red and green and yellow all mixed in a proportion with water (added according to taste) to produce a ghastly face of bluish-black tinge. Some richer breeds of humans manage to get silvered up, others end up classy - plain black.

Sweets are just concoctions of some refined flour, some vegetable oil pretending to be desi ghee and loads of sugar. These sweets ironically are the cause of bitterness among modern aunties who wield the weapon of "Kanjoos kahi ki! Kam se kam holi pe to acchi mithai khilati! (That miserly b**ch! She could have at least served good quality sweets on Holi!)". 

And don't get me started on the wishes. 'Bura na maano holi hai' seems like the new slogan of the irritating kids who feel it is their moral duty to get unsuspecting strangers to make contact with their holy balloons filled with god-knows-what. 

Now I'll also not pretend to be one of those pro-flowery holi supporters. Why punish flowers if you can't overcome your incompetence in playing safely?

OOOOH, I almost forgot the mud-slingers. The best of the lot. I can't thank them enough for keeping me down to (and buried in) earth. Mere desh ki mitti. *sniffs*

Maybe this holi, you should stay away from these privileges and play holi with your reactions and chemicals. Use concentrated nitric acid, add it to copper and get brilliant red fumes which are more beautiful than the painted faces around you. Get the flame started and put in some lithium on a platinum loop and get that bright pink colour that all the gulal in the world would fail to replicate. Pass some sulphur dioxide through acidified potassium dichromate and viola! you just changed orange to green! Can the next door pest do that with his "pakka" colours? Puny kid.

Of course, I am not that stupid that I'll hope you people focus more on chem and less on Holi. That would be scandalous. It would be blasphemy of the highest order. And if this would have been Pakistan, I would have been nominated for the Noble Peace Prize.

[Grammar nazis, I deliberately mis-spelt Nobel.]

Instead, I ask you to do something less revolting. Decide. If you have a will power strong enough to resist the temptation, just sit at home and slog on with chem. But if you know you won't be able to do that, just stop fooling yourself and others, go out, play for a couple of hours and then start slogging. Trust me, this would be much more time saving than being physically at the desk while your mind is smearing gulal on your crush's face while he/she acknowledges your existence. Wishful thinking. *smh*

And if you feel offended with my tirade an advice, 


asked by Saksham Rastogi (sam307) 3 hours ago

+ 1 more questions by sam307  

Don't read further if you don't wanna ruin your day.

In Geography, it was means of transport not modesss
So all metalled roads, cart tracks are wrong!!!!

I have been crying for 3 hours now...
asked by Aryan Gupta (xprince) 4 hours ago

+ 5 more questions by xprince  

Is action of HNO3 on inorganic compounds, organic cmpnds, brown ring test in portion; basically page 208 and 209 in portion??
Syllabus says only till action on C, P and S.. so technically 208,209,210 not in portion??
asked by Sahaj Shah (eternityseeker) 5 hours ago

+ 3 more questions by eternityseeker  

What will be the res users as anime characters / avengers. Inspired by Aditya
asked by No name (teleansh) 5 hours ago

+ 12 more questions by teleansh  

I know many people are bored of all of the studies. This is only for those who are in dire need of entertainment. The studious people may swipe or scroll past this. I don't mean to disturb anyone, but I just wanted to ask this one question.
If Respaper was the Harry Potter world, who would be the characters?
asked by Mr. Mathematics (aditya_bandaru) 6 hours ago

+ 3 more questions by aditya_bandaru  

Is there any way I can block a type of notification? For example, I want to block all the notifications that are related to ICSE Q&A page(That's cause I'm gonna check it all out anyways without the notifications. Plus, most of my notifications are from Q&A)...
asked by Dr. Rikhil Gupta (rikhil32) 7 hours ago

+ 1 more questions by rikhil32  

did anyone possess notes of organic chemistry?
asked by Bitthal Maheshwari (bitthal04) 8 hours ago

+ 6 more questions by bitthal04  

Is it wrong that I am attracted to a girl in my class?Boys usually approach me but I have no interest in them.

BTW I am a girl.
asked by Tara Gupta (tara21) 9 hours ago
Does anyone have a chart for the colour of metals and nonmetals
[not asking for reactant-product chart but would be grateful if you could upload that too]
asked by Isha Choudhury (dessicatedcoconut) 10 hours ago

+ 2 more questions by dessicatedcoconut  

here i what I found for @teleansh from youtube
asked by Prateek Gurjar (godblessme20) 10 hours ago

+ 7 more questions by godblessme20  

can someone upload notes for chemistry
asked by Tubhyam Mehta (tirth7683) 11 hours ago

+ 3 more questions by tirth7683  

What definitions do we need to learn from mole concept chapter 4? In Dalal they’ve this list of all deifinitions(page 85) so do we have to learn ALL?!?
asked by Some Random Tree (sciencegeek) 12 hours ago

+ 2 more questions by sciencegeek  

Any Anime Fan Like Me???^-^
(could you suggest me some good shounen to watch...)
asked by Purvam Prajapati (purvam) 13 hours ago

+ 1 more questions by purvam  

In comp paper I wrote 4 instead off 4.0. Will they deduct 1 or 2 marks. Otherwise I have written everything in the question paper correctly.
asked by Sanjay (sanjay673) 13 hours ago
What textbook are yall following for chemistry guyzz..??
asked by SId m (siddhant03) 15 hours ago

+ 3 more questions by siddhant03  


1. Periodic Properties and variations of
Properties – Physical and Chemical.
(i) Periodic properties and their variations in
groups and periods.
Definitions and trends of the following
periodic properties in groups and periods
should be studied:
• atomic size
• metallic character
• non-metallic character
• ionisation potential
• electron affinity
• electronegativity
(ii) Periodicity on the basis of atomic number for
• The study of modern periodic table up to
period 3 (students to be exposed to the
complete modern periodic table but no
questions will be asked on elements
beyond period 3 – Argon);
• Periodicity and other related properties
to be explained on the basis of nuclear
charge and shells (not orbitals).
(Special reference to the alkali metals and halogen
2. Chemical Bonding
Electrovalent, covalent and co-ordinate
bonding, structures of various compounds,
Electron dot structure.
(a) Electrovalent bonding:
• Electron dot structure of
Electrovalent compounds NaCl,
MgCl2, CaO.
• Characteristic properties of
electrovalent compounds – state of
existence, melting and boiling
points, conductivity (heat and
electricity), dissociation in solution
and in molten state to be linked with
(b) Covalent Bonding:
• Electron dot structure of covalent
molecules on the basis of duplet
and octet of electrons (example:
hydrogen, chlorine, nitrogen,
ammonia, carbon tetrachloride,
• Polar Covalent compounds –
based on difference in
Examples – HCl and H2O
including structures.
• Characteristic properties of
Covalent compounds – state of
existence, melting and boiling
points, conductivity (heat and
electricity), ionisation in solution.
Comparison of Electrovalent and
Covalent compounds.
(c) Coordinate Bonding:
• Definition
• The lone pair effect of the oxygen
atom of the water molecule and the
nitrogen atom of the ammonia
molecule to explain the formation of
H3O+ and OH- ions in water and
+ ion. 
The meaning of lone pair; the
formation of hydronium ion and
ammonium ion must be explained with
help of electron dot diagrams.
3. Study of Acids, Bases and Salts
(i) Simple definitions in terms of the molecules
and their characteristic properties.
(ii) Ions present in mineral acids, alkalis and
salts and their solutions; use of litmus and pH
paper to test for acidity and alkalinity.
• Examples with equation for the
ionisation/dissociation of ions of acids,
bases and salts.
• Acids form hydronium ions (only positive
ions) which turn blue litmus red, alkalis
form hydroxyl ions (only negative ions)
with water which turns red litmus blue.
• Salts are formed by partial or complete
replacement of the hydrogen ion of an
acid by a metal. (To be explained with
suitable examples).
• Introduction to pH scale to test for
acidity, neutrality and alkalinity by using
pH paper or Universal indicator.
(iii)Definition of salt; types of salts.
Types of salts: normal salts, acid salt, basic
salt, definition and examples.
(iv) Action of dilute acids on salts.
Decomposition of hydrogen carbonates,
carbonates, sulphites and sulphides by
appropriate acids with heating if necessary.
(Relevant laboratory work must be done).
(v) Methods of preparation of Normal salts with
relevant equations. (Details of apparatus or
procedures not required).
Methods included are:
• Direct combination
• Displacement
• Precipitation (double decomposition)
• Neutralization of insoluble base
• Neutralisation of an alkali (titration)
• Action of dilute acids on carbonates
and bi-carbonates.
4. Analytical Chemistry
(i) Action of Ammonium Hydroxide and
Sodium Hydroxide on solution of salts:
colour of salt and its solution; formation
and colour of hydroxide precipitated for
solutions of salts of Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn and
Pb; special action of ammonium
hydroxide on solutions of copper salt and
sodium hydroxide on ammonium salts.
On solution of salts:
• Colour of salt and its solution.
• Action on addition of Sodium
Hydroxide to solution of Ca, Fe, Cu,
Zn, and Pb salts drop by drop in
excess. Formation and colour of
hydroxide precipitated to be
highlighted with the help of
• Action on addition of Ammonium
Hydroxide to solution of Ca, Fe, Cu,
Zn, and Pb salts drop by drop in
excess. Formation and colour of
hydroxide precipitated to be
highlighted with the help of
• Special action of Ammonium
Hydroxide on solutions of copper
salts and sodium hydroxide on
ammonium salts.
(ii) Action of alkalis (NaOH, KOH) on
certain metals, their oxides and
The metals must include aluminium, zinc
and lead, their oxides and hydroxides,
which react with caustic alkalis (NaOH,
KOH), showing the amphoteric nature of
these substances.
5. Mole Concept and Stoichiometry
(i) Gay Lussac’s Law of Combining Volumes;
Avogadro’s Law.
• Idea of mole – a number just as a dozen,
a gross (Avogadro’s number).
• Avogadro’s Law - statement and
• Gay Lussac’s Law of Combining
Volumes. – Statement and explanation.
• Understanding molar volume- “the mass
of 22.4 litres of any gas at S.T.P. is equal
to its molar mass”. (Questions will not be
set on formal proof but may be taught for
clear understandin).
• Simple calculations based on the molar
volume and Gay Lussac’s law.
(ii) Refer to the atomicity of hydrogen, oxygen,
nitrogen and chlorine (proof not required).
The explanation can be given using
equations for the formation of HCl, NH3, and
(iii) Vapour Density and its relation to relative
molecular mass:
• Molecular mass = 2×vapour density
(formal proof not required)
• Deduction of simple (empirical) and
molecular formula from:
(a) the percentage composition of a
(b) the masses of combining elements.
(iv) Mole and its relation to mass.
• Relating mole and atomic mass;
arriving at gram atomic mass and then
gram atom; atomic mass is a number
dealing with one atom; gram atomic
mass is the mass of one mole of atoms.
• Relating mole and molecular mass
arriving at gram molecular mass and
gram molecule – molecular mass is a
number dealing with a molecule, gram
molecular mass is the mass of one mole
of molecules.
• Simple calculations based on relation
of mole to mass, volume and
Avogadro’s number.
(v) Simple calculations based on chemical
Related to weight and/or volumes of both
reactants and products.
6. Electrolysis
(i) Electrolytes and non-electrolytes.
Definitions and examples.
(ii) Substances containing molecules only, ions
only, both molecules and ions.
• Substances containing molecules only
ions only, both molecules and ions.
• Examples; relating their composition
with their behaviour as strong and weak
electrolytes as well as non-electrolytes.
(iii) Definition and explanation of electrolysis,
electrolyte, electrode, anode, cathode, anion,
cation, oxidation and reduction (on the basis
of loss and gain of electrons).
(iv)An elementary study of the migration of
ions, with reference to the factors influencing
selective discharge of ions (reference should
be made to the activity series as indicating
the tendency of metals, e.g. Na, Mg, Fe, Cu,
to form ions) illustrated by the electrolysis
• Molten lead bromide
• acidified water with platinum electrodes
• Aqueous copper (II) sulphate with
copper electrodes; electron transfer at the
The above electrolytic processes can be
studied in terms of electrolyte used,
electrodes used, ionization reaction, anode
reaction, cathode reaction, use of selective
discharge theory, wherever applicable.
(v) Applications of electrolysis:
• Electroplating with nickel and silver,
choice of electrolyte for electroplating.
• Electro refining of copper;
Reasons and conditions for electroplating;
names of the electrolytes and the electrodes
used should be given. Equations for the
reactions at the electrodes should be given
for electroplating, refining of copper.
7. Metallurgy
(i) Occurrence of metals in nature:
• Mineral and ore - Meaning only.
• Common ores of iron, aluminium and
(ii) Stages involved in the extraction of metals:
(a) Dressing of the ore – hydrolytic
method, magnetic separation, froth
flotation method.
(b) Conversion of concentrated ore to its
oxide- roasting and calcination
(definition, examples with equations).
(c) Reduction of metallic oxides- some can
be reduced by hydrogen, carbon and
carbon monoxide (e.g. copper oxide,
lead (II) oxide, iron (III) oxide and zinc
oxide) and some cannot (e.g. Al2O3,
MgO) - refer to activity series). Active
metals by electrolysis e.g. sodium,
potassium and calcium. (reference only).
Equations with conditions should be
(d) Electro refining – reference only
 (iii) Extraction of Aluminium.
(a) Chemical method for purifying bauxite
by using NaOH – Baeyer’s Process.
(b) Electrolytic extraction – Hall Heroult’s
Structure of electrolytic cell - the
various components as part of the
electrolyte, electrodes and electrode
Description of the changes occurring,
purpose of the substances used and the
main reactions with their equations.
(iv) Alloys – composition and uses
Stainlesssteel, duralumin, brass, bronze,
fuse metal / solder.
8. Study of Compounds
 A. Hydrogen Chloride
Hydrogen chloride: preparation of hydrogen
chloride from sodium chloride; refer to the
density and solubility of hydrogen chloride
(fountain experiment); reaction with
ammonia; acidic properties of its solution.
• Preparation of hydrogen chloride from
sodium chloride; the laboratory method
of preparation can be learnt in terms of
reactants, product, condition, equation,
diagram or setting of the apparatus,
procedure, observation, precaution,
collection of the gas and identification.
• Simple experiment to show the density of
the gas (Hydrogen Chloride) –heavier
than air.
• Solubility of hydrogen chloride (fountain
experiment); setting of the apparatus,
procedure, observation, inference.
• Method of preparation of hydrochloric
acid by dissolving the gas in water- the
special arrangement and the mechanism
by which the back suction is avoided
should be learnt.
• Reaction with ammonia
• Acidic properties of its solution -
reaction with metals, their oxides,
hydroxides and carbonates to give their
chlorides; decomposition of carbonates,
hydrogen carbonates, sulphides,
• Precipitation reactions with silver
nitrate solution and lead nitrate solution.
B. Ammonia
Ammonia: its laboratory preparation
from ammonium chloride and collection;
ammonia from nitrides like Mg3N2
and AlN and ammonium salts.
Manufacture by Haber’s Process;
density and solubility of ammonia
(fountain experiment); aqueous solution
of ammonia; its reactions with hydrogen
chloride and with hot copper (II) oxide 
and chlorine; the burning of ammonia in
oxygen; uses of ammonia.
• Laboratory preparation from
ammonium chloride and collection;
(the preparation to be studied in
terms of, setting of the apparatus and
diagram, procedure, observation,
collection and identification)
• Ammonia from nitrides like Mg3N2
and AlN using warm water.
Ammonia from ammonium salts using
The reactions to be studied in terms of
reactants, products, conditions and
• Manufacture by Haber’s Process.
• Density and solubility of ammonia
(fountain experiment).
• The burning of ammonia in oxygen.
• The catalytic oxidation of ammonia
(with conditions and reaction)
• Its reactions with hydrogen chloride
and with hot copper (II) oxide and
chlorine (both chlorine in excess and
ammonia in excess).
All these reactions may be studied in
terms of reactants, products,
conditions, equations and
• Aqueous solution of ammonia - reaction
with sulphuric acid, nitric acid,
hydrochloric acid and solutions of
iron(III) chloride, iron(II) sulphate,
lead nitrate, zinc nitrate and copper
• Uses of ammonia - manufacture of
fertilizers, explosives, nitric acid,
refrigerant gas (Chlorofluro carbon –
and its suitable alternatives which are
non-ozone depleting), and cleansing
C. Nitric Acid
Nitric Acid: one laboratory method of
preparation of nitric acid from potassium
nitrate or sodium nitrate. Large scale
preparation. Nitric acid as an oxidizing
• Laboratory preparation of nitric acid
from potassium nitrate or sodium
nitrate; the laboratory method to be
studied in terms of reactants, products,
conditions, equations, setting up of
apparatus, diagram, precautions,
collection and identification.
• Manufacture of Nitric acid by
Ostwald’s process (Only equations
with conditions where applicable).
• As an oxidising agent: its reaction with
copper, carbon, sulphur.
D. Sulphuric Acid
Large scale preparation, its behaviour as an
acid when dilute, as an oxidizing agent when
concentrated - oxidation of carbon and
sulphur; as a dehydrating agent - dehydration
of sugar and copper (II) sulphate crystals; its
non-volatile nature.
• Manufacture by Contact Process
Equations with conditions where
• Its behaviour as an acid when dilute -
reaction with metal, metal oxide, metal
hydroxide, metal carbonate, metal
bicarbonate, metal sulphite, metal
• Concentrated sulphuric acid as an
oxidizing agent - the oxidation of carbon
and sulphur.
• Concentrated sulphuric acid as a
dehydrating agent- (a) the dehydration of
sugar (b) Copper (II) sulphate crystals.
• Non-volatile nature of sulphuric acid -
reaction with sodium or potassium
chloride and sodium or potassium nitrate.
9. Organic Chemistry
(i) Introduction to Organic compounds.
• Unique nature of Carbon atom – tetra
valency, catenation.
• Formation of single, double and triple
bonds, straight chain, branched chain,
cyclic compounds (only benzene).
(ii) Structure and Isomerism.
• Structure of compounds with single,
double and triple bonds.
• Structural formulae of hydrocarbons.
Structural formula must be given for:
alkanes, alkenes, alkynes up to 5 carbon
• Isomerism – structural (chain, position)
(iii)Homologous series – characteristics with
Alkane, alkene, alkyne series and their
gradation in properties and the relationship
with the molecular mass or molecular
(iv) Simple nomenclature.
Simple nomenclature - of the hydrocarbons
with simple functional groups – (double
bond, triple bond, alcoholic, aldehydic,
carboxylic group) longest chain rule and
smallest number for functional groups rule –
trivial and IUPAC names (compounds with
only one functional group)
(v) Hydrocarbons: alkanes, alkenes, alkynes.
• Alkanes - general formula; methane
(greenhouse gas) and ethane - methods of
preparation from sodium ethanoate
(sodium acetate), sodium propanoate
(sodium propionate), from iodomethane
(methyl iodide) and bromoethane (ethyl
bromide). Complete combustion of
methane and ethane, reaction of methane
and ethane with chlorine through
• Alkenes – (unsaturated hydrocarbons
with a double bond); ethene as an
example. Methods of preparation of
ethene by dehydro halogenation reaction
and dehydration reactions.
• Alkynes -(unsaturated hydrocarbons
with a triple bond); ethyne as an example
of alkyne; Methods of preparation from
calcium carbide and 1,2 dibromoethane
ethylene dibromide).
Only main properties, particularly addition
products with hydrogen and halogen
namely Cl2, Br2 and I2 pertaining to alkenes
and alkynes.
• Uses of methane, ethane, ethene, ethyne.
(vi) Alcohols: ethanol – preparation, properties
and uses.
• Preparation of ethanol by hydrolysis of
alkyl halide.
• Properties – Physical: Nature, Solubility,
Density, Boiling Points. Chemical:
Combustion, action with sodium, ester
formation with acetic acid, dehydration
with conc. Sulphuric acid to prepare
• Denatured and spurious alcohol.
• Important uses of Ethanol.
(vii) Carboxylic acids (aliphatic - mono
carboxylic acid): Acetic acid – properties
and uses of acetic acid.
• Structure of acetic acid.
• Properties of Acetic Acid: Physical
properties – odour (vinegar), glacial
acetic acid (effect of sufficient cooling to
produce ice like crystals). Chemical
properties – action with litmus, alkalis and
alcohol (idea of esterification).
• Uses of acetic acid
asked by Shreyansh (shreyansh06) 15 hours ago




asked by Annhaliator (laxyone) 19 hours ago

+ 2 more questions by laxyone  

Guys full ppr of Computer Applications please !!!!!!!!!!! Rikhil, Chicken, Teleansh, Dhruv etc why u all r not uploading?
asked by ICSE Preparer (icsepreparer) 1 day ago

+ 1 more questions by icsepreparer  

How was PE paper? Mine was great...
asked by Vindhya Badal (_itsme_) 1 day ago
Can anyone upload RaniLaxmi Bai school must known questions??
asked by Patel Bansari (bansuu) 1 day ago
Can someone please upload today's paper??  Anyone? Please oblige your juniors for the next year...
asked by Firdosh (firstlasttest12345) 1 day ago
for question 7 in the board exam for computer
how many marks can i expect if i did all the functions except the (b) option(i messed it up)
asked by Michael Chandy (michael44) 1 day ago
Anyone reads DC/Marvel comics?
asked by Aquaman- King of the Seven Seas (shauns) 1 day ago

+ 1 more questions by shauns  

Can anybody suggest some tough chemistry papers?
asked by Sm (sat23) 1 day ago
I attempted an extra question today...We're allowed to do that for all the papers rights?
asked by Captain Phasma (satyajit33) 1 day ago

+ 1 more questions by satyajit33  

Very easy non application paper
Continuing the custom by Chickezz(Aditya)  and dhruv
Aditya rejoicing coz he is going to score 100 and dhruv too
asked by Ayush Agarwal (qwertyuiop12345678901234567890) 1 day ago
Series (b) wat was the progression?
asked by Aditya Dungrani (chickezz5) 1 day ago

+ 1 more questions by chickezz5  

I am unable to download any paper despite a valid membership...what is the issue?
asked by Zoe D S (zoeds) 1 day ago
I am unable to download papers as showing internal server error, please help what can I do?
asked by Hemant Jadhav (hemantjadhav) 1 day ago
guys can anyone clearly state the difference between package and library class
asked by Sankhya Gowda (taankkkkk) 1 day ago

+ 2 more questions by taankkkkk  

According to the syllabus,
Only right-angled triangles' output questions for section B programs??
For patterns
asked by Ashish Mathew (ash_matt) 1 day ago

+ 1 more questions by ash_matt  

Difference between s.length and s.length() ??
asked by Harjas Bajaj (jammy229) 2 days ago
two differences between variable declaration and initialization pleasseee 
asked by Agrajah Bhobe (iron_man98) 2 days ago
For output lovers
asked by SODA The Ultimate comedy (aniruddha_1) 2 days ago

+ 1 more questions by aniruddha_1  

Write a program to calculate the primorial of a number.
asked by SнιVααηι мαнεsн (kawaiineko31) 2 days ago
what is the choice of questions in section 2 of commercial applications??
asked by Rajas Baadkar (pubgalpha) 2 days ago
System.exit function?
asked by Arun Munagala (cyberking7) 2 days ago

+ 2 more questions by cyberking7  

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