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Prepare 1) NaCl and 2)CuCl2 from respective oxides
asked by Aryan Gupta (xprince) 6 mins ago

+ 3 more questions by xprince  

What is the difference in case of metals-
Chemical reactivity and ability to discharge at cathode?
asked by Bitthal Maheshwari (bitthal04) 33 mins ago

+ 10 more questions by bitthal04  

Sorry guys...Yesterday, in my acronym thing I failed to post my mnemonic for the activity series, the most irritating thing to remember.When I started to go through everything for a quick revision, I came across it. So, down it goes..
K      - Kate
Ca    - Carries
Na    - Numerous
Mg   - Mangoes
Al     - And
Zn    - Zucchinis
Fe    - For
Pb    - Poor
[H]    - Hans
Cu    -
Hg    - CHristian(For both Cu and Hg)
Ag    - Anderson.

P.S-I don't have any personal vengeance against this guy. He was the name which came suiting all those final elements. Also, only thing to notice and remember on your own is that H comes first, then only comes Hg, you can confuse this as there are two Hs.
asked by Sanjay (sanjay673) 1 hour ago

+ 2 more questions by sanjay673  

1. Is Sodium hydrogen carbonate(NaHCO3) a basic salt or an acidic salt? According to defn, since it has a hydrogen atom, it should be acidic, but in reality, NaHCO3(Baking soda) is used to neutralize acids right?

2. Do basic soluions too have H+(aq.) ions? Explain why they are basic by taking an example. 

3. Why is "Contact" Process called so? I was just curious.

4. Why is Ammonium "Chloride" used in Lab. Prep. of Ammonia?

5. Are Deliquescence, Efflorescence, etc. in syllabus? They aren't mentioned...

6. Why is it "Basicity of Acids" and "Acidity of Bases" ? Why not "Basicity of Bases" and "Acidity of Acids" ?(Again, curiosity)

7. Colour changes in which indicators should we remember ? Is Litmus, Methyl Orange & Phenolphthalein enough?

8. Syllabus of Metallurgy starts from Minerals and Ores, right? I assume general properties of metals and non-metals aren't in syllabus?

9. Is Na2CO3 a basic salt, or a normal salt? Since it's made of a strong base & weak acid, but at the same time, doesn't have OH- ions to make it basic...

10. Are numericals on pH value required?

Sorry if it's a bit too long(I know it is). But I'd appreciate anyone taking out time to answer these.
asked by Prateek Pradhan (prateek235) 2 hours ago

+ 3 more questions by prateek235  

1.As we move from left to right in period 3,the gram atomic VOLUME of the elements ______
2.If the empirical formula of a compound is CH2O, then its mol. form can be-a) C2H2 b) C2H4O c) C3H6O d) C6H12O
[told ya they ask marvelous stuff in prelims.]
3.Why is H+ called a proton? [For 2 marks]
4.A compound X(molform C2H2O2) reacts with Na to form a comp R and evolves a gas which burns with pop sound. Comp X on treatment with alcohol A in presence of an acid forms a sweet smelling compound S molform C3H6O2. on addition of NaOH to X also gives R and water. S on treatment with NaOH sol gives back R and A. Identify each. [4 marks]
asked by Isha Choudhury (dessicatedcoconut) 2 hours ago

+ 3 more questions by dessicatedcoconut  

Aquaman enough is enough. This psycho is going out of limits.
asked by No name (teleansh) 7 hours ago

+ 8 more questions by teleansh  

Why is HCl a stronger acid than H2CO3 or organic acids? For that matter, can you explain the same case with bases as well (alkalis--- KOH vs. Ca(OH)2 or NH4OH)
Is it to do with partial or complete dissociation?
asked by Aditi RK (sciencegeek) 9 hours ago

+ 4 more questions by sciencegeek "May affect students' preparations for their exams negatively" wow. Such logic. 

So, question papers are copyrighted too now?
This is commercialism at its peak. Lol.
asked by Yashaswini Joshi (yashaswini72) 10 hours ago
In organic chemistry while giving iupac names for structural formulas if say it is pent-2-ane then we have to count it from Right to left or left to right?
asked by Aryan Jani (aryan_jani) 11 hours ago
is the concentration of alluminium ore BAEYERS PROCESS OR CHEMICAL METHOD
asked by Sankhya Gowda (taankkkkk) 12 hours ago

+ 2 more questions by taankkkkk  

How to convert FeCl3 to FeCl2 
Plz tell if it is there in Dalal then pg no.
asked by SODA The Ultimate comedy (aniruddha_1) 13 hours ago
On Aditya's demand:

Group 1:

LiNa Ki Rab Se(Cs)  Fariyad

Group 2: 

Beta Mange Car Scooter Baap Raazi

Group 13:

Baingan Aloo Gajar In Thaila 

Group 14: 

CaShi (Kashi) Gaye Shankar Parbati

Group 15:

Nepal Pakistan Australia Sab Bhikhari

Group 16: 

Us (O S) Se Tipo (Te Po) (tipo = to cheat)

Group 17:

Fir Kal (Cl) Bahar Aayi Aunty

Group 18:

Heena Neena Aur Kareena Ka X(e)ray Rangeen
asked by Saksham Rastogi (sam307) 13 hours ago

+ 1 more questions by sam307  

People dislike answers even though I might have copied from the textbook itself.Its so damn irritating. ResUsers are soooooooo irritating. Dislike notifications flooding my notifications
asked by Aquaman- King of the Seven Seas (shauns) 15 hours ago

+ 3 more questions by shauns  

inspired by Sanjay's post,  also have a mnemonic for elements in the periodic table.
Group 1 - Lina Ke Rab Cosmologist. (Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs)
Group 2 - Beta Mange Car Santro Bab Re (Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra)
I'll try to come with more later, if anyone finds this useful...
asked by Mr. Mathematics (aditya_bandaru) 15 hours ago

+ 3 more questions by aditya_bandaru  

Is there any good practice worksheet for Mole Concept?
asked by Sahaj Shah (eternityseeker) 16 hours ago

+ 4 more questions by eternityseeker  

Ok, so if anyone wants proof for my no. of notifications, here's a screenshot for 58 notifications in the past hour
asked by Dr. Rikhil Gupta (rikhil32) 17 hours ago
why are the cbse page is dead and the isc page is inactive?
asked by Prateek Gurjar (godblessme20) 18 hours ago

+ 8 more questions by godblessme20  

if thou r asked to write the bonding in a non metallic chloride
what will thou writes't.plz give a valid reason
i will covalent coz there may be a compound called FCl
asked by Ayush Agarwal (qwertyuiop12345678901234567890) 18 hours ago

+ 2 more questions by qwertyuiop12345678901234567890  

is anyone able to download res papers?
asked by Zoe D S (zoeds) 20 hours ago

+ 1 more questions by zoeds  

Bored with HCl and HNO3 forming fumes in your heart and the rust that is not clearing from your brain even after adding Oxalic acid to it. Than stop to take a look below.

If you just want a break and want to feel refreshed or even if you just want to take out your frustration on anything other than the book download the file which is linked below:

asked by Nisarg Bhavsar (nisarg71) 20 hours ago
Confirmed by board checker , whoever wrote jhopdi for Hindi will get marks
asked by Aditya Dungrani (chickezz5) 23 hours ago

+ 1 more questions by chickezz5  

Guys this page shows u videos of most of those gases from practical work
asked by Arya Ajith (arya1019) 23 hours ago
can someone upload notes for chemistry
asked by Tubhyam Mehta (tirth7683) 1 day ago

+ 2 more questions by tirth7683  

Any Anime Fan Like Me???^-^
(could you suggest me some good shounen to watch...)
asked by Purvam Prajapati (purvam) 1 day ago

+ 1 more questions by purvam  

What textbook are yall following for chemistry guyzz..??
asked by SId m (siddhant03) 1 day ago

+ 2 more questions by siddhant03  


1. Periodic Properties and variations of
Properties – Physical and Chemical.
(i) Periodic properties and their variations in
groups and periods.
Definitions and trends of the following
periodic properties in groups and periods
should be studied:
• atomic size
• metallic character
• non-metallic character
• ionisation potential
• electron affinity
• electronegativity
(ii) Periodicity on the basis of atomic number for
• The study of modern periodic table up to
period 3 (students to be exposed to the
complete modern periodic table but no
questions will be asked on elements
beyond period 3 – Argon);
• Periodicity and other related properties
to be explained on the basis of nuclear
charge and shells (not orbitals).
(Special reference to the alkali metals and halogen
2. Chemical Bonding
Electrovalent, covalent and co-ordinate
bonding, structures of various compounds,
Electron dot structure.
(a) Electrovalent bonding:
• Electron dot structure of
Electrovalent compounds NaCl,
MgCl2, CaO.
• Characteristic properties of
electrovalent compounds – state of
existence, melting and boiling
points, conductivity (heat and
electricity), dissociation in solution
and in molten state to be linked with
(b) Covalent Bonding:
• Electron dot structure of covalent
molecules on the basis of duplet
and octet of electrons (example:
hydrogen, chlorine, nitrogen,
ammonia, carbon tetrachloride,
• Polar Covalent compounds –
based on difference in
Examples – HCl and H2O
including structures.
• Characteristic properties of
Covalent compounds – state of
existence, melting and boiling
points, conductivity (heat and
electricity), ionisation in solution.
Comparison of Electrovalent and
Covalent compounds.
(c) Coordinate Bonding:
• Definition
• The lone pair effect of the oxygen
atom of the water molecule and the
nitrogen atom of the ammonia
molecule to explain the formation of
H3O+ and OH- ions in water and
+ ion. 
The meaning of lone pair; the
formation of hydronium ion and
ammonium ion must be explained with
help of electron dot diagrams.
3. Study of Acids, Bases and Salts
(i) Simple definitions in terms of the molecules
and their characteristic properties.
(ii) Ions present in mineral acids, alkalis and
salts and their solutions; use of litmus and pH
paper to test for acidity and alkalinity.
• Examples with equation for the
ionisation/dissociation of ions of acids,
bases and salts.
• Acids form hydronium ions (only positive
ions) which turn blue litmus red, alkalis
form hydroxyl ions (only negative ions)
with water which turns red litmus blue.
• Salts are formed by partial or complete
replacement of the hydrogen ion of an
acid by a metal. (To be explained with
suitable examples).
• Introduction to pH scale to test for
acidity, neutrality and alkalinity by using
pH paper or Universal indicator.
(iii)Definition of salt; types of salts.
Types of salts: normal salts, acid salt, basic
salt, definition and examples.
(iv) Action of dilute acids on salts.
Decomposition of hydrogen carbonates,
carbonates, sulphites and sulphides by
appropriate acids with heating if necessary.
(Relevant laboratory work must be done).
(v) Methods of preparation of Normal salts with
relevant equations. (Details of apparatus or
procedures not required).
Methods included are:
• Direct combination
• Displacement
• Precipitation (double decomposition)
• Neutralization of insoluble base
• Neutralisation of an alkali (titration)
• Action of dilute acids on carbonates
and bi-carbonates.
4. Analytical Chemistry
(i) Action of Ammonium Hydroxide and
Sodium Hydroxide on solution of salts:
colour of salt and its solution; formation
and colour of hydroxide precipitated for
solutions of salts of Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn and
Pb; special action of ammonium
hydroxide on solutions of copper salt and
sodium hydroxide on ammonium salts.
On solution of salts:
• Colour of salt and its solution.
• Action on addition of Sodium
Hydroxide to solution of Ca, Fe, Cu,
Zn, and Pb salts drop by drop in
excess. Formation and colour of
hydroxide precipitated to be
highlighted with the help of
• Action on addition of Ammonium
Hydroxide to solution of Ca, Fe, Cu,
Zn, and Pb salts drop by drop in
excess. Formation and colour of
hydroxide precipitated to be
highlighted with the help of
• Special action of Ammonium
Hydroxide on solutions of copper
salts and sodium hydroxide on
ammonium salts.
(ii) Action of alkalis (NaOH, KOH) on
certain metals, their oxides and
The metals must include aluminium, zinc
and lead, their oxides and hydroxides,
which react with caustic alkalis (NaOH,
KOH), showing the amphoteric nature of
these substances.
5. Mole Concept and Stoichiometry
(i) Gay Lussac’s Law of Combining Volumes;
Avogadro’s Law.
• Idea of mole – a number just as a dozen,
a gross (Avogadro’s number).
• Avogadro’s Law - statement and
• Gay Lussac’s Law of Combining
Volumes. – Statement and explanation.
• Understanding molar volume- “the mass
of 22.4 litres of any gas at S.T.P. is equal
to its molar mass”. (Questions will not be
set on formal proof but may be taught for
clear understandin).
• Simple calculations based on the molar
volume and Gay Lussac’s law.
(ii) Refer to the atomicity of hydrogen, oxygen,
nitrogen and chlorine (proof not required).
The explanation can be given using
equations for the formation of HCl, NH3, and
(iii) Vapour Density and its relation to relative
molecular mass:
• Molecular mass = 2×vapour density
(formal proof not required)
• Deduction of simple (empirical) and
molecular formula from:
(a) the percentage composition of a
(b) the masses of combining elements.
(iv) Mole and its relation to mass.
• Relating mole and atomic mass;
arriving at gram atomic mass and then
gram atom; atomic mass is a number
dealing with one atom; gram atomic
mass is the mass of one mole of atoms.
• Relating mole and molecular mass
arriving at gram molecular mass and
gram molecule – molecular mass is a
number dealing with a molecule, gram
molecular mass is the mass of one mole
of molecules.
• Simple calculations based on relation
of mole to mass, volume and
Avogadro’s number.
(v) Simple calculations based on chemical
Related to weight and/or volumes of both
reactants and products.
6. Electrolysis
(i) Electrolytes and non-electrolytes.
Definitions and examples.
(ii) Substances containing molecules only, ions
only, both molecules and ions.
• Substances containing molecules only
ions only, both molecules and ions.
• Examples; relating their composition
with their behaviour as strong and weak
electrolytes as well as non-electrolytes.
(iii) Definition and explanation of electrolysis,
electrolyte, electrode, anode, cathode, anion,
cation, oxidation and reduction (on the basis
of loss and gain of electrons).
(iv)An elementary study of the migration of
ions, with reference to the factors influencing
selective discharge of ions (reference should
be made to the activity series as indicating
the tendency of metals, e.g. Na, Mg, Fe, Cu,
to form ions) illustrated by the electrolysis
• Molten lead bromide
• acidified water with platinum electrodes
• Aqueous copper (II) sulphate with
copper electrodes; electron transfer at the
The above electrolytic processes can be
studied in terms of electrolyte used,
electrodes used, ionization reaction, anode
reaction, cathode reaction, use of selective
discharge theory, wherever applicable.
(v) Applications of electrolysis:
• Electroplating with nickel and silver,
choice of electrolyte for electroplating.
• Electro refining of copper;
Reasons and conditions for electroplating;
names of the electrolytes and the electrodes
used should be given. Equations for the
reactions at the electrodes should be given
for electroplating, refining of copper.
7. Metallurgy
(i) Occurrence of metals in nature:
• Mineral and ore - Meaning only.
• Common ores of iron, aluminium and
(ii) Stages involved in the extraction of metals:
(a) Dressing of the ore – hydrolytic
method, magnetic separation, froth
flotation method.
(b) Conversion of concentrated ore to its
oxide- roasting and calcination
(definition, examples with equations).
(c) Reduction of metallic oxides- some can
be reduced by hydrogen, carbon and
carbon monoxide (e.g. copper oxide,
lead (II) oxide, iron (III) oxide and zinc
oxide) and some cannot (e.g. Al2O3,
MgO) - refer to activity series). Active
metals by electrolysis e.g. sodium,
potassium and calcium. (reference only).
Equations with conditions should be
(d) Electro refining – reference only
 (iii) Extraction of Aluminium.
(a) Chemical method for purifying bauxite
by using NaOH – Baeyer’s Process.
(b) Electrolytic extraction – Hall Heroult’s
Structure of electrolytic cell - the
various components as part of the
electrolyte, electrodes and electrode
Description of the changes occurring,
purpose of the substances used and the
main reactions with their equations.
(iv) Alloys – composition and uses
Stainlesssteel, duralumin, brass, bronze,
fuse metal / solder.
8. Study of Compounds
 A. Hydrogen Chloride
Hydrogen chloride: preparation of hydrogen
chloride from sodium chloride; refer to the
density and solubility of hydrogen chloride
(fountain experiment); reaction with
ammonia; acidic properties of its solution.
• Preparation of hydrogen chloride from
sodium chloride; the laboratory method
of preparation can be learnt in terms of
reactants, product, condition, equation,
diagram or setting of the apparatus,
procedure, observation, precaution,
collection of the gas and identification.
• Simple experiment to show the density of
the gas (Hydrogen Chloride) –heavier
than air.
• Solubility of hydrogen chloride (fountain
experiment); setting of the apparatus,
procedure, observation, inference.
• Method of preparation of hydrochloric
acid by dissolving the gas in water- the
special arrangement and the mechanism
by which the back suction is avoided
should be learnt.
• Reaction with ammonia
• Acidic properties of its solution -
reaction with metals, their oxides,
hydroxides and carbonates to give their
chlorides; decomposition of carbonates,
hydrogen carbonates, sulphides,
• Precipitation reactions with silver
nitrate solution and lead nitrate solution.
B. Ammonia
Ammonia: its laboratory preparation
from ammonium chloride and collection;
ammonia from nitrides like Mg3N2
and AlN and ammonium salts.
Manufacture by Haber’s Process;
density and solubility of ammonia
(fountain experiment); aqueous solution
of ammonia; its reactions with hydrogen
chloride and with hot copper (II) oxide 
and chlorine; the burning of ammonia in
oxygen; uses of ammonia.
• Laboratory preparation from
ammonium chloride and collection;
(the preparation to be studied in
terms of, setting of the apparatus and
diagram, procedure, observation,
collection and identification)
• Ammonia from nitrides like Mg3N2
and AlN using warm water.
Ammonia from ammonium salts using
The reactions to be studied in terms of
reactants, products, conditions and
• Manufacture by Haber’s Process.
• Density and solubility of ammonia
(fountain experiment).
• The burning of ammonia in oxygen.
• The catalytic oxidation of ammonia
(with conditions and reaction)
• Its reactions with hydrogen chloride
and with hot copper (II) oxide and
chlorine (both chlorine in excess and
ammonia in excess).
All these reactions may be studied in
terms of reactants, products,
conditions, equations and
• Aqueous solution of ammonia - reaction
with sulphuric acid, nitric acid,
hydrochloric acid and solutions of
iron(III) chloride, iron(II) sulphate,
lead nitrate, zinc nitrate and copper
• Uses of ammonia - manufacture of
fertilizers, explosives, nitric acid,
refrigerant gas (Chlorofluro carbon –
and its suitable alternatives which are
non-ozone depleting), and cleansing
C. Nitric Acid
Nitric Acid: one laboratory method of
preparation of nitric acid from potassium
nitrate or sodium nitrate. Large scale
preparation. Nitric acid as an oxidizing
• Laboratory preparation of nitric acid
from potassium nitrate or sodium
nitrate; the laboratory method to be
studied in terms of reactants, products,
conditions, equations, setting up of
apparatus, diagram, precautions,
collection and identification.
• Manufacture of Nitric acid by
Ostwald’s process (Only equations
with conditions where applicable).
• As an oxidising agent: its reaction with
copper, carbon, sulphur.
D. Sulphuric Acid
Large scale preparation, its behaviour as an
acid when dilute, as an oxidizing agent when
concentrated - oxidation of carbon and
sulphur; as a dehydrating agent - dehydration
of sugar and copper (II) sulphate crystals; its
non-volatile nature.
• Manufacture by Contact Process
Equations with conditions where
• Its behaviour as an acid when dilute -
reaction with metal, metal oxide, metal
hydroxide, metal carbonate, metal
bicarbonate, metal sulphite, metal
• Concentrated sulphuric acid as an
oxidizing agent - the oxidation of carbon
and sulphur.
• Concentrated sulphuric acid as a
dehydrating agent- (a) the dehydration of
sugar (b) Copper (II) sulphate crystals.
• Non-volatile nature of sulphuric acid -
reaction with sodium or potassium
chloride and sodium or potassium nitrate.
9. Organic Chemistry
(i) Introduction to Organic compounds.
• Unique nature of Carbon atom – tetra
valency, catenation.
• Formation of single, double and triple
bonds, straight chain, branched chain,
cyclic compounds (only benzene).
(ii) Structure and Isomerism.
• Structure of compounds with single,
double and triple bonds.
• Structural formulae of hydrocarbons.
Structural formula must be given for:
alkanes, alkenes, alkynes up to 5 carbon
• Isomerism – structural (chain, position)
(iii)Homologous series – characteristics with
Alkane, alkene, alkyne series and their
gradation in properties and the relationship
with the molecular mass or molecular
(iv) Simple nomenclature.
Simple nomenclature - of the hydrocarbons
with simple functional groups – (double
bond, triple bond, alcoholic, aldehydic,
carboxylic group) longest chain rule and
smallest number for functional groups rule –
trivial and IUPAC names (compounds with
only one functional group)
(v) Hydrocarbons: alkanes, alkenes, alkynes.
• Alkanes - general formula; methane
(greenhouse gas) and ethane - methods of
preparation from sodium ethanoate
(sodium acetate), sodium propanoate
(sodium propionate), from iodomethane
(methyl iodide) and bromoethane (ethyl
bromide). Complete combustion of
methane and ethane, reaction of methane
and ethane with chlorine through
• Alkenes – (unsaturated hydrocarbons
with a double bond); ethene as an
example. Methods of preparation of
ethene by dehydro halogenation reaction
and dehydration reactions.
• Alkynes -(unsaturated hydrocarbons
with a triple bond); ethyne as an example
of alkyne; Methods of preparation from
calcium carbide and 1,2 dibromoethane
ethylene dibromide).
Only main properties, particularly addition
products with hydrogen and halogen
namely Cl2, Br2 and I2 pertaining to alkenes
and alkynes.
• Uses of methane, ethane, ethene, ethyne.
(vi) Alcohols: ethanol – preparation, properties
and uses.
• Preparation of ethanol by hydrolysis of
alkyl halide.
• Properties – Physical: Nature, Solubility,
Density, Boiling Points. Chemical:
Combustion, action with sodium, ester
formation with acetic acid, dehydration
with conc. Sulphuric acid to prepare
• Denatured and spurious alcohol.
• Important uses of Ethanol.
(vii) Carboxylic acids (aliphatic - mono
carboxylic acid): Acetic acid – properties
and uses of acetic acid.
• Structure of acetic acid.
• Properties of Acetic Acid: Physical
properties – odour (vinegar), glacial
acetic acid (effect of sufficient cooling to
produce ice like crystals). Chemical
properties – action with litmus, alkalis and
alcohol (idea of esterification).
• Uses of acetic acid
asked by Shreyansh (shreyansh06) 1 day ago




asked by Annhaliator (laxyone) 1 day ago
Guys full ppr of Computer Applications please !!!!!!!!!!! Rikhil, Chicken, Teleansh, Dhruv etc why u all r not uploading?
asked by ICSE Preparer (icsepreparer) 2 days ago

+ 1 more questions by icsepreparer  

How was PE paper? Mine was great...
asked by Vindhya Badal (_itsme_) 2 days ago
Can anyone upload RaniLaxmi Bai school must known questions??
asked by Patel Bansari (bansuu) 2 days ago
Can someone please upload today's paper??  Anyone? Please oblige your juniors for the next year...
asked by Firdosh (firstlasttest12345) 2 days ago
for question 7 in the board exam for computer
how many marks can i expect if i did all the functions except the (b) option(i messed it up)
asked by Michael Chandy (michael44) 2 days ago
Can anybody suggest some tough chemistry papers?
asked by Sm (sat23) 2 days ago
I attempted an extra question today...We're allowed to do that for all the papers rights?
asked by Captain Phasma (satyajit33) 2 days ago
I am unable to download papers as showing internal server error, please help what can I do?
asked by Hemant Jadhav (hemantjadhav) 2 days ago

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