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CBSE Class 10 Pre Board 2018 : English Language & Literature (St Xavier's Sr. Sec. School, Delhi) : Set 1

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ST. XAVIER'S SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL, DELHI - 110054 Pre-Board Examination in ENGLISH Pre Board Examination 2018 Std. 10 05-01-2018 Set 1 Max. Marks : 80 Time : 3 hrs. The question paper is divided into three sections: Section - A Reading 20 marks Section - B Writing & Grammar 30 marks Section - C Literature 30 marks General Instructions: i) All questions are compulsory. ii) You may attempt any section at a time. iii) All questions of that particular section must be attempted in the correct order. SECTION - A (Reading) 1. Read the following passage carefully: Most people can remember a phone number for up to thirty seconds. When this short amount of time remove of, however, the numbers are erased from the memory. How did the information get there in the first place? Information that makes its way to the short-term memory (STM) does so via the sensory storage area. The brain has a filter which only allows stimuli that is of immediate interest to pass on to the STM, also known as the working memory. There is much debate about the capacity and duration of the short-term memory. The most accepted theory comes from George A. Miller, a cognitive psychologist who suggested that humans can remember approximately seven chunks of information. A chunk is defined as a meaningful unit of information, such as a word or name rather than just a letter or number. Modern theorists suggest that one can increase the capacity of the short-term memory by chunking, or classifying similar information together. By organizing information, one can optimize the STM, and improve the chances of a memory being passed on to long-term storage. When making a conscious effort to memorise something, such as information for an exam, many people engage in "rote rehearsal". By repeating something over and over again, one is able to keep a memory alive. Unfortunately, this type of memory maintenance only succeeds if there are no interruptions. As soon as a person stops rehearsing the information, it has the tendency to disappear. When a pen and paper are not handy, people often attempt to remember a phone number by repeating it aloud. If the doorbell rings or the dog barks to come in before a person has the opportunity to make a phone call, he will likely forget the number instantly. Therefore, rote rehearsal is not an efficient way to pass information from the short-term to long-term memory. A better way is to practise "elaborate rehearsal". This involves assigning semantic meaning to a piece of information so that it can be filed along with other pre-existing long-term memories. Encoding information semantically also makes it more retrievable. Retrieving information can be done by recognition or recall. Humans can easily recall memories that are stored in the long-term memory and used often; however, if a memory seems to be forgotten, it may eventually be retrieved by prompting. The more cues a person is given (such as pictures) the more likely a memory can be retrieved. This is why multiple choice tests are often used for subjects that require a lot of memorisation. 1.1 Answer the following questions briefly: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) 2. (1 x 8 = 8 marks) According to the passage, how do memories get transferred to the STM? Where can memory be stored? Why does the author mention a dog's bark? What is 'rote rehearsal'? Is it useful? How do theorists believe a person can remember more information in a short time? How can a lost memory be retrieved? What is 'elaborate rehearsal'? What is the meaning of the phrase 'remove of'? Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow: Childhood obesity rates have sky-rocketed in recent years. This trend is worrisome because it greatly increases children's risk for remaining obese in adulthood, which in turn increases their risk for other health related issues such as high blood pressure, heart diseases, stroke, cancer, diabetes, respiratory problems which might increase risk of premature death as adults. Obesity can set the stage for problems too. Obese children are more likely to suffer from low self esteem, depression, anxiety and social ostracism.

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