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TOPO NOTES This map is referred to as 1:50,000map and its scale is 2 cm=1km. Representation of Relief on the Map and its Interpretation Earth s surface uneven made up of hills, plains, plateaus, lowland which are varying in their elevation or heights from sea level. The total terrain is also called physical landscape. It can be represented on the maps through different methods, such as spot heights, contouring, etc. Surveying is considered a part of science of map making. Topographical maps are large-scale maps, they show a great deal of details about the relief. In Topographical survey, actual survey is carried out and different methods are used to represent relief on the map as follows. i)Hachuring ii)Hill shading iii)Form lines iv)Spot heights v)Triangulation points vi)Bench markscontours i)Hachuring: are short lines representing directions of a slope. - For steep slopes , they are drawn closer together than for the gentle slopes. - on flat grounds they can not be used at all. DISADVANTAGE: it gives no indication of the actual height and that both high plateau region and low plain are unshaded The close hachuring of the high mountain regions tends to obscure other details of the map. II) HILL SHADING: A method of representing relief on a map by depicting the shadows that would be cast by high ground if light were shining from a certain direction. It can be defined as the addition of shadows to give the optical illusion of a third dimension, making hills stand out in relief. The shadows can be regarded as those which would be cast on an imaginary relief model of the ground when illuminated by parallel rays of light from a selected direction or directions. In this map, it is assumed to be from north west at an angle of 45 degree with the horizon. This method too gives a general idea of relief of the country by it does not give the actual height and that it is difficult to know whether a piece of land is sloping uphill or downhill.

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