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ICSE Class X Notes 2019 : History and Civics

4 pages, 30 questions, 1 questions with responses, 1 total responses,    0    0
Pulkit Singla
Barnes School & Junior College, Devlali, Nashik
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Barnes School & Junior College, Devlali CHAPTER 1 THE FIRST WAR OF INDEPENDENCE (1857) QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 1) Why is the Revolt of 1857 sometimes referred to as the Sepoy Mutiny? The soldiers of the East India Company were discontented with their salary and status. Further, the introduction of the Enfield Rifle hurt their religious sentiments. They, therefore, were the first to break out in open revolt and were later joined by the sections of the society. Hence, the revolt was referred to as the Sepoy Mutiny. 2) Why is the Revolt of 1857 called the First War of Independence? The Revolt, though started by the Indian soldiers in the service of the East India Company, spread like wild fire throughout the length and breadth of the country. All sections of the population, including princes, jagirdars, farmers, artisans and soldiers joined in the struggle for independence. Hindus & Muslims fought shoulder to shoulder to throw out the British. Hence, the 1857 Revolt is called the First War of Independence. 3) What was the immediate cause of the Revolt? The immediate cause of the Revolt was the order to use the Enfield Rifles, the cartridges of which were greased with the fats of cows and pigs. The sepoys were required to remove the greased cover of the cartridges with their teeth before loading them into the rifles. The emotions ran high and the Hindu & Muslim sepoys unanimously refused to use these cartridges. They felt that the English were defiling their religions. 4) Name two leaders of the Revolt. Why did they join the Revolt? The two leaders were Nana Sahib and the Rani of Jhansi. Nana Sahib became an enemy of the British because they refused to acknowledge him as the heir. Further, they stopped the annual pension of 80,000 Pounds Sterling due to him. The adopted son of the Rani of Jhansi was not accepted as the heir to the throne and Jhansi was being annexed. 5) Who became the first Viceroy of India? Lord Canning became the first Viceroy of India under the Act of 1858. 6) Which new laws made the Indians feel that the British were favouring conversions to Christianity? The concerned laws were: a) Imposition of tax on properties belonging to temples and mosques. b) Conversion to Christianity enabled a person to inherit ancestral property. As a result, Indians felt that they were being coerced into conversion. 7) What was the Doctrine of Lapse ? Who introduced this doctrine for the first time in India? According to this doctrine, if a ruler died without an heir to succeed him, his adopted son could neither inherit the throne or the title. Further, in such a case the British Empire in India would annex the state. Lord Dalhousie introduced the Doctrine of Lapse for the first time in India to annex the states and expand the British Empire. 8) Name four states annexed by the British using the Doctrine of Lapse. The four states annexed by the British, under the Doctrine of Lapse were Satara, Jhansi, Nagpur and Udaipur. 9) Under what pretext did the British annex Oudh? The British annexed Oudh on the pretext that the state was not governed properly. 10) Why were the people of Oudh angry with the British? The people of Oudh were angry because: The British annexed Oudh on the pretext that the state was not governed properly. They disbanded the army of the annexed state and confiscated the land from the talukdars. The soldiers had to pay higher taxes on the land owned by them. No better governance was provided by the British after annexation. 11) Which announcement of Lord Dalhousie humiliated the Mughals? Lord Dalhousie announced in 1849 that the successors of Bahadur Shah Zafar II would not be permitted to use the Red Fort as their palace. This humiliated the Mughals. 12) Which announcement of Lord Canning adversely affected the Mughal Dynasty in India?

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