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Priyanshu Singh
Bishop Johnson School & College, Allahabad
10 Science
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Soils in India Scope of Syllabus Types of Soil (alluvial, black, red and laterite), composition and characteristics such as colour, texture, minerals and crops associated. Soil Erosion Causes, Preventions and need for Conservation. Prepared by Priyanshu Singh Soil Soil essentially is the loose material which forms the thin surface layer of the Earth and serving as a source of food and moisture for plants. Humus Humus is the organic matter present in the soil formed by the decomposition of plants and animals. Pedogenesis Pedogenesis is the science and study of the processes that led to the formation of soil. Soil Profile As per the Soil Profile, the soil mainly consists of two main layers (a) Topsoil and (b) Subsoil. (a) Topsoil Topsoil is the uppermost layer of Earth s crust which has the highest concentration of organic matters and microorganisms and where the most of soil activity takes place. (b) Subsoil Subsoil is the layer of soil next to the Topsoil. It also contains a part of organic material and moisture but it is not very productive. Soil Erosion Soil Erosion is the removal of Topsoil by various agents of weathering e.g. Wind and Overgrazing. The prime factor of soil erosion is Running Water. There are several ways in which soil erosion takes place due to running water. (a) Sheet Erosion When Topsoil gets eroded from very large areas due to fast flowing rivers. (b) Gully Erosion Gully Erosion takes place when running water cuts deep ravines in the absence of vegetation. It makes soil unfit for cultivation. There are several ways in which soil is eroded (a) (b) (c) (d) Overgrazing Deforestation Wind Erosion Human Beings. Soil Conservation Soil Conservation is an effort, made by man to prevent soil erosion to retain fertility of Soil. There are several ways of Soil Conservation (a) (b) (c) (d) Afforestation Contour Ploughing Check Overgrazing Constructing Dams and Barrages.

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