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ICSE Board Exam 2014 : Model Answers (History and Civics)

20 pages, 46 questions, 36 questions with responses, 79 total responses
ICSE
Indian Certificate of Secondary Education (ICSE), New Delhi
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HISTORY, CIVICS & GEOGRAPHY STATISTICS AT A GLANCE Total Number of students who took the examination 1,49,056 Highest Marks Obtained 100 Lowest Marks Obtained Mean Marks Obtained 13 69.88 Percentage of Candidates according to marks obtained Mark Range Details 0-20 427 0.29 427 0.29 Number of Candidates Percentage of Candidates Cumulative Number Cumulative Percentage 21-40 11337 7.61 11764 7.89 41-60 34110 22.88 45874 30.78 61-80 55369 37.15 101243 67.92 Range of Marks Obtained 37.15 Percentage of Candidates 40.00 32.08 35.00 30.00 22.88 25.00 20.00 15.00 7.61 10.00 0.29 5.00 0.00 0-20 21-40 41-60 61-80 Marks Obtained 70 81-100 81-100 47813 32.08 149056 100.00

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HISTORY & CIVICS H.C.G. - Paper 1 I. ANALYSIS OF PERFORMANCE Question 1 (a) Who administers the oath of office to the Council of Ministers? [1] (b) Why is the Rajya Sabha called a Permanent house ? [1] (c) State the minimum number of times the Lok Sabha must meet in a year. [1] (d) State the composition of the Electoral College in the election of the President of India. [1] (e) What is an Ordinance ? When can it be passed? [1] (f) Mention one way by which the authority of the Prime Minister can be checked? [1] (g) What is understood by the term Individual Responsibility in a Parliamentary Democracy? (h) [1] What is meant by a Single Integrated Judicial System as provided in the Indian Constitution? [1] (i) What is the Appellate Jurisdiction of the High Court? [1] (j) State one point of distinction between the District Judge and the Sessions Judge. [1] Examiners Comments (a) Most candidates answered correctly. However, a few candidates wrote the Chief Justice or the Prime Minister. (b) Generally well answered. Some candidates mentioned the tenure of the members. (c) Some candidates mentioned the three sessions of Lok Sabha instead of writing the number of times it meets in a year. (d) Most candidates answered correctly. However, a few mentioned only Member of Parliament, members of the Legislative Assemblies were however excluded. (e) Instead of temporary law, many candidates used the words decree, order or Bill, etc. The phrase temporary law was rarely used and could not be explained as to when it can be passed. (f) Most candidates answered this question correctly. (g) Instead of individual responsibility, a few candidates explained Collective responsibility. 71 Suggestions for teachers Be specific about the fact that the oath is administered by the President of India only. They should highlight such answers. The concept of Permanent House must be explained with clarity. The meaning of the word dissolved should also be clearly explained. It should be explained that the gap between the two meetings of the Lok Sabha should not be more than six months and these are three sessions in a year. It is an indirect election where our elected representatives in Parliament and State Assemblies elect the President of India.

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(h) Most candidates answered incorrectly as they were unable to understand the meaning of the word integrated . They explained it as independence of judiciary from the executive control or mentioned the features of the Federal Structure of Government instead. (i) A few explained original Jurisdiction with reference to the Supreme Court. (j) Many candidates could not explain the difference between the District Judge and the Session Judge. District Judge is a permanent Judge while Session Judge is appointed only for one session. Explain emphatically that an ordinance is a temporary law issued by the President when the Parliament is not in session. The President does not make laws. It requires the approval of the Parliament within six weeks after it re-assembles. Explain why it is imperative to keep restrictions on the powers of the Prime Minister through interpolation, adjournment motions, no-confidence motion, etc. Clearly explain the difference between the individual responsibility and the corrective responsibility during the course of teaching. Explain the meaning of the term integrated and then explain the working of the Judicial system with the Supreme Court at the apex and the uniform system of laws in India. Impress upon the minds of students the types of jurisdiction of various courts. Courts of District Judge and Session Judge should be explained with differences in their powers and functions. MARKING SCHEME Question 1. (a) The President of India administers the oath of office to the council of ministers. (b) (i) The Rajya Sabha is called a permanent house because 1/3 of its members retire every two years. (ii) The Rajya Sabha cannot be dissolved by the President of India. (Any one point) (c) The Lok Sabha must meet at least twice in a year. The maximum gap between two sessions is six months. (d) The Electoral college consists of the elected members of the Vidhan Sabha (Legislative Assembly) of all the states and (ii) the elected members of the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha. (e) An ordinance is a temporary law passed by the President (ii) when the Parliament is not in session or during an emergency. (f) The authority of the Prime Minister can be checked by many ways (i) there may be dissensions within the ruling party itself. He needs to get the support of his party. (ii) the members of the opposition parties can criticize his policies, so also the mass media and the general public opinion. (iii) in case of a coalition party he has to satisfy the leaders of the various parties. (iv) Interpolation. (v) Vote of No-confidence. (Any one point) (g) Individual responsibility means that each minister is (i) answerable to the Parliament regarding his department (ii) it is obligatory for the particular minister to reply to the questions asked by the members of Parliament (iii) if there are personal lapses on his part (iv) if he or his department 72

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goes against the official policy laid down (v) if there is a breach in the oath of secrecy. (Any one point) (h) The single integrated judicial system means (i) the Supreme Court is at the apex of the entire judicial system (ii) The Supreme Court supervises and controls the functioning of the other courts (iii) a single civil and criminal system operates throughout the country (iv) there are no separate laws for the states (v) the Supreme Court is the highest court of appeal -its decisions are final. (Any one point) (i) The appellate jurisdiction of the High Court means that the High Court has the power to accept appeals against the decisions of the District Courts, in civil and criminal matters. (j) When a judge decides civil cases he is called the District Judge and when he decides criminal cases he is called the Sessions Judge. (ii) when a Judge decides matters in cases related to property and money transactions he is the District Judge, when he decides cases related to murder, robbery, theft etc., he is called a Sessions Judge. (Any one point) Question 2 (a) State any two political causes responsible for the First War of Independence. [2] (b) What was the role of the press in promoting nationalistic sentiments amongst the Indians? [2] (c) Mention two important contributions of Lala Lajpat Rai. [2] (d) What were the two basic reasons responsible for the Surat Split in 1907 between the Early Nationalists and the Assertive Nationalists? [2] (e) Mention any one provision each of the Gandhi Irwin Pact signed in 1931. [2] (f) State two important objectives of the Indian National Army. [2] (g) Name the three members of the Cabinet Mission. [2] (h) Mention any two terms of the Treaty of Versailles signed on June 28, 1919. [2] (i) State two factors which were responsible for the failure of the League of Nations. [2] (j) Mention two functions of the General Assembly. [2] Examiners Comments (a) Most candidates answered the question correctly. However, a few mentioned the economic causes or the causes of the First World War. (b) Most candidates answered correctly, however a few wrote general statements repeating the question. (c) Most candidates wrote general answers, and appeared confused between Tilak and Lajpat Rai. Specific contributions were missing. 73 Suggestions for teachers Advise students to read the question carefully during the reading time allotted. Teach them to write clear and specific points rather than general statements. Advise students to be very specific in explaining the contributions of prominent leaders.

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(d) One factor responsible for the Surat split i.e. the difference of opinion with regard to Swadeshi and Boycott movements was mentioned correctly however the second factor - the election of the president was not mentioned by majority of candidates. (e) Most candidates answered the question correctly. A few however committed errors in answering the question. (f) Many candidates were confused and mentioned the objectives of Forward Bloc instead. (g) Most candidates answered the question correctly. Only a few wrote the full names of the members while others mentioned Clement Atlee, Mountbatten, etc. (h) This question was answered correctly by most candidates. However a few candidates were unable to express themselves with confidence. (i) Most candidates were unsure of the facts and answered the question incorrectly that reflected inadequate preparation. (j) Most candidates answered the question correctly. However some candidates were confused between the functions of the General Assembly and the Security Council. Suggestions for teachers Explain the various reasons for the Surat split and highlight those which are relevant in this context. A tendency exists to overlook the importance of their reasons. Discussions in class must involve that a pact or agreement is between two parties. Hence it is essential to know the terms put forward by both. Students must be taught to understand and analyse the question before answering. Explain that the Forward Bloc was a party formed by S.C. Bose whereas INA was the army formed to liberate India from British rule. Advise students that it is essential to learn the correct and full names of important leaders involved in the Freedom Movement. Guide and ensure by way of written assignments that students are well prepared. Highlight all points and advise candidates to learn the facts well. Remind students the importance of learning facts well so that they can write quality answers especially in direct questions. MARKING SCHEME Question 2. (a) (i) Many states like Jhansi, Satara, Nagpur were annexed under the Doctrine of lapse introduced by Lord Dalhousie. According to this heirs adopted without the consent of the Company could inherit the private property of the deceased ruler but the kingdom would come directly under the Company's rule. (ii) Awadh was annexed by Lord Dalhousie on the pretext of alleged misrule. (iii) The disrespect shown to Bahadur Shah, the Mughal ruler. Dalhousie announced that Bahadur Shah's successors could not use the Red Fort as their palace and were to shift to Qutub Minar. Later Lord Canning announced that after the death of Bahadur Shah his successors will not be allowed to use the imperial titles with their names and would be known as mere princes. (iv) Treatment given to Nana Saheb, the adopted son of Baji Rao II resented as the British refused to give the pension they were paying to Baji Rao II. Rani Laxmi Bai of Jhansi was a bitter enemy of the British as she was adversely affected by the Doctrine of lapse. (v) The rule of the British was resented by the Indians as they felt that they were being ruled from England and India's wealth was not being used for their welfare. (Any two points) (b) The press played an important role as it (i) spread the message of patriotism and modern liberal ideals of liberty, freedom, equality among the people (ii) it criticized daily the unjust policy of the British Government in India and exposed the true nature of the British rule in India (iii) it 74

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(c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) made exchange of views possible among different social groups from different parts of the country and in organising political movements (iv) it made the Indians aware of what was happening in the world and it helped them to shape their own policies and programmes. (Any two points) Lala Lajpat Rai (i) started a monthly magazine 'Young India' to spread the message of the right of India to attain Swaraj. (ii) He wrote a book on National Education as he wanted to reform the existing education system. (iii) he was associated with the Arya Samaj Movement (iv) he helped in the expansion D.A.V. College at Lahore (v) he set up the Servants of the Peoples Society for the welfare of the down trodden and outcastes. (vi) he opened orphanages, hospitals and schools (vii) he went abroad to mobilise opinion in favour of India's struggle for freedom. (viii) he joined the Ghadar party in America (ix) he founded 'Punjabi', 'Vande Mataram', (urdu daily) and 'People' (English weekly). (Any two points) The two basic reasons for the Surat split in 1907 were (i) the Early nationalists did not want to extend the Swadeshi and the Boycott to the rest of India but confine it only in Bengal. The Assertive Nationalists wanted to extend the Boycott and Swadeshi movement and make it a fullfledged mass struggle to achieve Swaraj (ii) there was a disagreement over who would be the next President of the Congress - the Early Nationalists proposed the name of Ras Behari Bose and the Assertive Nationalists proposed the name of Lala Lajpat Rai. (Any two points) The Gandhi Irwin pact agreed to by the Congress and the Government. The Congress agreed to suspend the civil disobedience movement. (ii) they agreed to participate in the Second Round Table Conference (iii) that they would not press for investigation into police excesses. The Government agreed to (i) withdraw all ordinances and end prosecution. (ii) release all political prisoners except those guilty of violence (iii) permit peaceful picketing of liquor and foreign clothes. (iv) restore the confiscated properties of the Satyagrahis (v) permit the free collection or manufacture of salt by persons near the sea coast. (Any one points) The main objectives of the I.N.A were:- (i) to organise an armed revolution and to fight the British army with modern arms (ii) the task of organising an armed revolution was to be taken by the Indians abroad specially those living in East Asia (iii) organise a provisional government of Free India in order to mobilise all the forces effectively (iv) total mobilisation of Indian man power and money for a total war (v) INA's motto was 'unity, faith and sacrifice'. (Any two points) The three members of the Cabinet Mission were:- Pethick Lawrence, Sir Stafford Cripps and A.V. Alexander. The main purpose of the Cabinet Mission was (i) to facilitate the transfer of power (ii) to help the Indian leaders decide the form of Government that would suit them after the transfer of power. (iii) Groups A,B and C to form Constituent Assemblies from the respective groups. (Any one points) The terms of the Treaty of Versailles were:(i) it declared Germany guilty of aggressions (ii) Germany was required to pay 33 billion dollars for the losses and damages suffered by the Allies (iii) Germany had to cede her merchant ships to the Allies as compensation (iv) it had to supply huge quantities of coal to France, Italy and Belgium for 10 years (v) The area of Rhine Valley was to be de-militarised (vi) the German territory west of Rhine was to be occupied by the Allied troops for 15 years. (vii) Germany lost Alsace Lorraine to France, Eupen-et-Malmedy to Belgium, Schleswig to Denmark. Danzig became a free port in the Polish territory. 75

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(i) (j) (viii) Germany ceded parts of her pre-war territory to Denmark, Belgium, Poland and Czechoslovakia and France (ix) the German coal mines at Saar were ceded to France for 15 years and the area was to be governed by the League of Nations (x) Germany lost all her colonies to the victorious allies - Britain, Belgium and Portugal. (xi) German colonies in the Pacific and areas under her control in China were given to Japan (xii) the German army was restricted to a force of 1,00,000 soldiers and the navy was limited to 15,000 men and 24 ships The Airforce and submarines were banned. (xiii) the covenant of the League of Nations was added to the Treaty. (Any two points) Reasons for the failure of League were (i) the US did not join the League (ii) the members of the League were not interested in the principle of collective security (iii) the League was not able to help the members in allaying the threat of war as it was not strong (iv) the members defied or ignored the League. eg: Japan seized Manchuria and Italy conquered Ethiopia. (v) member states were not willing to apply economic sanctions as it affected their economy (vi) it failed to maintain international peace so the European countries lost faith in the League (vii) it failed to check the rise of dictatorships in Germany and Italy. (Any two points) The two important functions of the General Assembly are:to consider and make recommendations on the principles of cooperation, in the (i) maintenance of international peace and security (ii) to discuss questions relating to international peace and security and to make recommendations on it. (iii) to discuss and make recommendations on any question within the scope of the charter or affecting the powers and functions of any organ of the United Nations. (iv) to initiate studies and make recommendations to promote international political, social and economic cooperation (v) to make recommendations for the peaceful settlement of disputes (vi) to receive and consider reports from the security council and the organs of the United Nations (vii) to consider and approve the budget of the United Nations and to apportion the contributions among members (viii) to elect the non-permanent members of the Security Council, Economic and Social Council and the Trustee ship Council and elect the Judges of the International Court of Justice (ix) to appoint the Secretary General on the recommendation of the Security Council. (Any two points) 76

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Question 3 With reference to the Indian Parliament, explain the following: (a) The tenure of the members of the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha. [2] (b) The composition of the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha. [4] (c) Its powers to make laws on subjects mentioned in the (i) Union List (ii) Concurrent List. [4] Examiners Comments (a) The word tenure was confused with the composition or qualifications by a few candidates. A majority however answered the question correctly. (b) Most candidates answered the question correctly. A few mistakes were observed in a few answers. However, the number of members specified of both Houses were found to be incorrect. (c) Majority of candidates mentioned the role of the Parliament and State Legislatures in making laws in these lists. They however were unsure about the number of subjects which come under these lists. 77 Suggestions for teachers The meaning of the term tenure needs to be explained and differentiated from its composition. If key words are explained correctly, errors can be avoided. Ensure students are able to analyse correctly as to what specific facts are expected from the question being asked. Reading time is given for this purpose. Students must avoid writing vague and long answers. Explain clearly the meaning of the Union, State and the concurrent lists with the examples of the subjects mentioned in these lists. In addition explain that a State subject assumes national importance when the Rajya Sabha passes a resolution and then the will of the Parliament prevails over the State.

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MARKING SCHEME Question 3. (a) The composition of the Lok Sabha is (i) (b) (c) 530 members directly elected by the people of the various states. The allotment of members to the various states is made on a population basis. (ii) not more than 20 members shall represent the Union Territories. (iii) two members will be nominated by the President. The nominated members are to be from the Anglo Indian Community. The total strength is 552 members. It should not exceed this number. In the Rajya Sabha: (i) 238 members are elected by the States in the Union. The seats are allocated to the States and Union territories on the basis of their population. (ii) twelve members are nominated by the President from among persons having special knowledge or practical experience in the field of Art, Literature, Science, and Social Service. The maximum strength of the Rajya Sabha is 250. The tenure of a member of the Lok Sabha is 5 years and the term for a Rajya Sabha member is 6 years. The Union Parliament has (i) exclusive powers to make laws on 97 subjects in the Union list eg: defence, foreign policy, currency etc., (ii) in the concurrent list the Union Parliament along with the state legislative assembly can make laws on 47 subjects. In case of a conflict the law passed by the Union Paraliament will prevail (iii) the Parliament can legislate even on the state list subjects (a) in case of emergency or (b) if the Rajya Sabha passes a resolution that a particular subject in the state list has assumed special importance or (c) when two or more states request the Parliament to legislate on a subject given in the state list. (iv) any subject which is not mentioned in any of these lists come under the residuary powers of the Parliament. Only the Parliament can legislate on the subjects not mentioned in any of the three lists. Question 4 The Cabinet holds a pivotal position in the working of the Indian Parliamentary Government. In this context discuss the following: (a) The formation of the Cabinet. [2] (b) Any two administrative powers of the Cabinet. [4] (c) Any two legislative powers of the Cabinet. [4] 78

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Examiners Comments (a) Most candidates were unable to analyse and write the answer correctly. Only a few wrote relevant points except the point appointed by the President of India. (b) A few candidates were unable to comprehend the word administrative and mentioned the Legislative Powers instead. Even though some had a clue of the Cabinet as policy makers , they could not specify the points required in the answer. (c) Distinction between the administrative, legislative and executive powers was not clear. Candidates were unsure of the correct facts and answered in a general manner. Suggestions for teachers Highlight the difference between the Council of Ministers and the Senior Cabinet Ministers. The Prime Minister selects them and on his advice the President appoints them. Explain that legislative powers deal with the preparing of bills and getting them passed in the Parliament. While administrative functions include formulating of national policies. Guide and instruct students to learn the basic terms and to analyse the question properly. Guide them to enlist the various powers under each heading and revise the points well. MARKING SCHEME Question 4. (a) The Prime Minister will choose his cabinet and advise the President accordingly. They are the most important members of the council of Ministers. (i) The cabinet holds an important pivotal position in the working of the Government. The cabinet is a body consisting of important senior leaders of the party. (ii) they hold important portfolios like Defence, Railways and decide major policies of the Government (iii) they are the trusted men and form the nucleus of the administration (iv) they take important decisions which are communicated to the other ministers who have to follow them. (Any two points) (b) (i) Four administrative functions of the cabinet are:- (i) Policy making: the cabinet formulates both external and domestic policies of the Government. It takes decisions on matters like defence, economic policies, formation of new states etc. Individual ministers have to consult the cabinet on all major matters. (ii) Implementation of policies: when the cabinet takes a certain decision on any subject it is conveyed to the ministers of state and deputy ministers of the concerned ministry. They will work out the details and pass it to the civil servants for implementation. In this way the business of the Government is managed by the council of ministers and the civil servants. (iii) Co-ordinates the working of various ministers: The cabinet coordinates the working of various departments for the smooth implementation of Government policies. Any policy like improving public health services, increase in Government revenue etc., requires involvement of several departments for its formulation and implementation. (iv) Appointments: All major appointments made by the President are decided upon by the Cabinet eg: appointment of Judges, Governors of State, Ambassadors and other dignitaries. (c) Legislative Powers: (i) Introduction of bills: The cabinet and the departments of administration take initiative in introducing almost 95% of the bills. These Official bills are given priority and preference 79

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over Private bills. It involves preparing the draft proposals and presenting them before the Parliament for approval; which approves these legislative proposals and bills become laws. (ii) Sources of Information: The ministers of the concerned department answer questions put to them by the members and thus provide information to the public. (iii) Amendment to the Constitution: The cabinet is instrumental in planning and moving amendment to the Constitution. (iv) Summoning the Houses of the Parliament: Although the Houses are summoned by the President but the initiative is taken by the Ministry of Parliamentary affairs. (v) President's Special address: The President's address which contains the legislative programmes of the year is prepared by the Cabinet. (vi) Issuing Ordinances: The Cabinet advises the President to issue ordinances when the Parliament is not in session. (Any four points) Question 5 With reference to the Supreme Court, explain its functions stated below: (a) Original Jurisdiction. [3] (b) Advisory Function. [3] (c) As a guardian of Fundamental Rights. [4] Examiners Comments (a) This question was correctly answered by most candidates though a few mistook it for Appellate Jurisdiction. (b) Most candidates answered the question correctly. However, a few could not understand it and explained judicial review or the revisory jurisdiction instead. (c) Most candidates answered the question correctly, mentioning the various writs to safeguard the Fundamental Rights. Writs were explained which can be cited as examples but incomplete answers were however written. 80 Suggestions for teachers Guide students that they need to cite examples correctly to score marks. Guess work does not help. They also need to differentiate between the Union Government and the Union Legislature while giving examples regarding the disputes. Explain that the President may seek the advice of the Supreme Court on important issues. However, the opinion of the Supreme Court is not binding on the President. It is only on advice. Highlight the importance of the Fundamental Rights and with this in mind explain the various ways by which the Supreme Court plays an important role in guarding the Fundamental Rights.

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MARKING SCHEME Question 5. (a) Guardian of Fundamental Rights: (i) The constitution guarantees the citizen the right to move the court for the enforcement of fundamental rights. (ii) It can issue orders or writs like Habes Corpus for the enforcement of fundamental rights. (iii) Any law passed by the Parliament which abridges or takes away the fundamental right will be declared null and void by the Supreme Court. (b) Advisory Jurisdiction: The President of India may seek advice of the Supreme Court on important questions of law or facts of public importance and it is necessary to obtain the opinion of the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court is not bound to express any opinion and its advisory opinion is not binding on the President (c) The Supreme Court performs various functions: In cases which are brought before it in the first instance i.e, those cases which cannot be moved in any court other than the Supreme Court Centre-state or inter-state disputes -(i) between Government of India and one or more states or (ii) Between Government of India and any state or states on one side and one or more states on the other. (iii) Disputes between two or more states. Question 6 The establishment of the Indian National Congress led to the development of the National Movement in India. In this context answer the following: (a) When was the Indian National Congress established? Who presided over its first session? [2] (b) What were the four aims of the Congress? [4] (c) Mention four basic beliefs of the Early Nationalists. [4] Examiners comments (a) Majority of candidates wrote the correct answer. Some however were confused with the name of the first President and wrote A.O. Hume / Surendranath Banerjee instead. A few were not clear when it was established. (b) Most candidates answered the question correctly. However, some candidates were not specific in writing the aims and confused it with the demands of the Congress. (c) Most candidates answered the question correctly, though some have written about the methods rather than the beliefs of the Congress. 81 Suggestions for teachers Important dates of historical events must be emphatically taught with the ability to retain. Incorrect dates can result in the loss of marks. Highlight the difference between the aims and demands of the Congress. Ensure that students understand the meaning of the terms beliefs , aims and methods thoroughly to avoid committing errors.

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MARKING SCHEME Question 6. (a) The Indian National Congress was established on the 28th December 1885. Womesh Chandra Banerjee presided over the first session of the Congress. (b) The four main aims of the Congress were: (i) to promote friendly relations between nationalist political workers from different parts of the country (ii) to develop and consolidate the feelings of national unity irrespective of caste, religion or province (iii) to formulate popular demands and present them before the Government (iv) to train and organise the public opinion in the country. (c) The basic beliefs of the early nationalists were:(i) they had faith in the sense of justice, fair play, honesty and integrity of the British. (ii) it was their hope that the British would grant 'Home Rule' to them and relied on the solemn pledges made by the British Government. (iii) they believed that the British rule had many benefits eg: it helped in removing social evils, like sati, child marriage, untouchability etc. (iv) they thought that the British would help Indians to govern themselves according to western standards. (v) they thought that the main obstacle in India's progress was the social and economic backwardness of the Indians and not the British colonial rule. (vi) they relied on constitutional and peaceful methods to achieve their aims. They believed in patience and reconciliation rather than in violence and confrontation. [Any four points] Question 7 In the Nagpur session, 1920, the Congress ratified the resolution to launch the Non-Cooperation movement under the leadership of Gandhiji. In this context: (a) What do you understand by the term Non-Cooperation? [2] (b) What were the objectives which the movement sought to achieve? [3] (c) Explain the impact of the Non-Cooperation movement in India s struggle for freedom. [5] 82

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Examiners Comments (a) Most candidates answered the question correctly. (b) Most candidates were unable to comprehend the question. The result was that they were not able to write the correct objectives. Some mentioned the programme of the Non-Cooperation Movement. A few however answered the question correctly. (c) Most candidates answered correctly. However, a few could not understand the meaning of the word impact and repeated the programmes of the Movement in their answers. Suggestions for teachers Explain the term Non-Cooperation comprehensively. In simplified words it means not to cooperate. Advise students to read and understand the question before making attempts to answer. Explain that impact means importance or significance and is different from the programme of the Movement. MARKING SCHEME Question 7. (a) (i) Non-cooperation is a way of protesting in which ones does not cooperate with the evil doer. (ii) Gandhiji asked the people not to assist the foreign government to rule over them. (Any one point) (b) (i) The non-cooperation movement sought to achieve:- (i) to attain self-government within the British empire or attaining Swaraj. (ii) Annulment of the Rowlatt Act and punishing those guilty of atrocities in Punjab i.e., the British Government should express its regret on the happenings in Punjab. (iii) The British should adopt a lenient attitude towards Turkey, and restore the old status of the Sultan of Turkey. (c) The movement failed to achieve its objectives but it had an impact on the national movement: (i) The National movement became a mass movement as all the different sections of society peasants, teachers, students, etc., participated. (ii) Instilled confidence among the people:- it created a desire for freedom and inspired people to challenge the colonial rules. (iii) The Congress became a revolutionary movement: The Congress was not interested in mere deliberations (discussions) but an organisation for taking action. (iv) It fostered Hindu-Muslim unity: The Khilafat issue merged with this movement Congress tried to bring the urban Muslims into the National movement by convincing them that the nation was equally concerned with their problems. (v) Promoted social reforms: Several steps were taken towards the removal of untouchability and prohibition. National schools and colleges were set up in different parts of the country. Boycott of foreign goods led to the promotion of Indian handicrafts and industries 'Khadi' became the symbol of the national movement (iv) Spread Nationalism to every part of the country: It gave a new boost to nationalism in India. Provincial congress committees were reorganised on the basis of linguistic areas. The congress through its working committees would enable the congress to work as a continuous political organisation and provide it with the machinery for implementing resolutions. Membership fee was reduced to increase the membership from rural and urban areas. 83

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(vii) Popularised the Cult of Swaraj. The goal of the non-cooperation movement was to attain Swaraj withing the British empire, if possible, and outside if necessary The congress realised the nature and value of the popular support and though the movement failed to attain Swaraj, it definitely came nearer to it. (Any five points) Question 8 With reference to the picture given above answer the following: (a) Identify the Viceroy in the picture. [1] (b) Why was he sent to India? [2] (c) How did he plan to solve the communal problem existing in India? [2] (d) Why did the Congress accept the Plan? State three reasons to justify its acceptance. [5] Examiners Comments (a) Most candidates identified the picture correctly. However, a few mentioned Clement Atlee, Stafford Cripps, etc. (b) Most candidates answered the question correctly. However, a few vague answers like to present his plan or to divide India were written. Candidates were not sure of what was expected of them so they generalised the answer. (c) Some candidates lacked conceptual clarity in their thought process. They mentioned terms of the Mountbatten plan which was not part of the question. (d) Most candidates answered the question correctly. 84 Suggestions for teachers Familiarise students with important photographs from textbooks or otherwise. Picture reading questions help students to upgrade their performance. Instruct students to be specific in answering questions. This helps them to comprehend and answer correctly. Written assignments correct many situations that also involve writing incorrect and vague answers. Explain issues of how Lord Mountbatten had discussions with both the Congress and the Muslim League and found that partition of India was the only solution to the communal problem existing in the country. Explain the condition of India which compelled the Congress to accept the plan.

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MARKING SCHEME Question 8. (a) The personality in this picture is Lord Mountbatten. (b) He was sent to India (i) to take steps for the transfer of power to the Indians (ii) to restore peace amongst the Congress and the League. (c) He planned to solve the communal problems by suggesting the partition of India into two dominions - India and Pakistan. (d) The plan provided the setting up of (i) a Boundary Commission to settle the boundaries of the two dominions in case partition was decided upon. (ii) as regards the setting up of a Constituent Assembly it was planned that the existing constituent assembly would continue to work but the Constitution framed by it would not apply to Pakistan. (b) A separate constituent assembly would be constituted for those parts of India which decided in favour of partition. (e) The Muslims of the League were not fully satisfied with the way Pakistan was divided, but they accepted the plan for partition. (f) The Congress accepted the plan as it felt it had no other alternative. The reasons were: (i) as there were large - scale communal riots in the country and they were all convinced that partition of India was the only solution to this problem. (ii) the League had joined the interim government to obstruct and not to cooperate with the Congress. Congress was convinced that it could not have a joint administration with the League. (iii) the only alternative to partition was a Federation with a weak centre. They felt that a smaller India with a strong central authority was better than a bigger state with a weak centre. (iv) any further continuation of the British rule would mean a greater calamity for India. The Britishers were instigating the rulers of Indian States to remain independent (v) It was necessary that partition takes place so that they could get immediate independence. (vi) the leaders realised that a delay in the transfer of power could lead to a civil war. (vii) the partition would rid the constitution of separate electorates and other undemocratic procedures. Question 9 With reference to the causes of the Second World War answer the following: (a) (i) Explain how the ideologies of Fascism and Nazism led to the Second World War. (ii) [3] How did the Japanese invasion of China create conditions for the outbreak of the war? (b) [3] Explain the consequences of the war with reference to the formation of the United Nations. [4] 85

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Examiners Comments (a) Most candidates did not understand the meaning of the word ideologies . Many wrote the causes for the rise of Fascism and Nazism. Answers were generalised and vague. Candidates were not sure of the various ideologies responsible for the outbreak of the World War II. (b) The question was answered vaguely by replicating the question itself. Instead of invasion of Manchuria and defiance of the League of Nations, candidates mentioned the attack on Pearl Harbour. (c) Most candidates were unable to understand the question the consequences of the war with reference to the formation of the UNO. Some candidates explained both consequences of the war as well as formation of the UNO. Suggestions for teachers Distinguish between the general principles of dictatorship and specific causes for the rise of Fascism and Nazism. Classroom revision must involve thorough knowledge on the awareness of of all causes that led to the Second World War. Explain the fact that during the World War II, leaders like Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin felt it necessary to set up an organisation for the maintenance of International Peace and Security stronger than the League of Nations which ultimately led to the formation of the United Nations. MARKING SCHEME Question 9. (a) The rise of Fascism and Nazism as a cause to the second world war: (i) Italy wanted to revive the glory of the old empire. (ii) She joined the Anti-Comintern Pact in 1937 and (iii) formed a ten year alliance with Germany to strengthen her position (iv) Italy demonstrated her imperialistic designs by attacking Abyssinia. In Germany Hitler (i) wanted to re-establish the German empire in the International field. (ii) He flouted the military causes in the treaty of Versailles (iii) and declared re-armament (iv) In 1938 he annexed Austria and dis-membered Czechoslovakia. (b) Japanese invasion of China (i) Japan was determined to dominate the Far-East. (ii) it intervened in Manchuria and occupied it and set up a government in spite of League's opposition. (iii) Japan also started an undeclared war against China in 1931. China appealed to the League to declare sanctions against Japan (iv) Japan joined the Berlin-Rome Axis to form the Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis to further its policy of expansion and conquest. (v) In 1933 Japan left the League and started occupying the British and American properties in China. (vi) Britain and France followed the policy of appeasement, thinking that Japanese could be used to weaken China. (c) The consequences of the war with reference to: 86

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(i) The formation of the United Nations. (1)The horrors of the two world wars and (2) the failure of the League of Nations led to a meeting of the big three - Roosevelt, President of the USA, Churchill, Prime Minister of Britan and Stallin, Premier of the USSR at Yalta in February 1945. (3) they resolved to convene a conference of the representatives of all the nations at San Francisco to draw up 'Charter of the United Nations'. The UNO was thus established on October 24, 1945. (ii) Defeat of Axis Powers: (1)The allied forces recaptured African territories lost by France. (2) this was followed by their victory over Italy. The allied powers forced Italy to make an unconditional surrender and send an armistice. (3) In 1945 the allied forced moved across the Rhine and defeated the German forces (4) the allied powers turned their attention towards Japan. The British forces liberated Malaya, Myanmar, Singapore and Philippines. (5) in the Potsdam Conference Japan was asked to surrender, but did not (6) America dropped the first atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945. Japan offered to surrender and the war came to an end. At the end of the war Germany was divided into four zones. Japan and Italy became weak. The American army was to occupy Japan till 1952. Question 10 With reference to the Non-Aligned Movement, explain the following: (a) Non-Alignment . [2] (b) Two factors responsible for its formation. [4] (c) Role of Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru. [4] Examiners Comments (a) Most candidates answered the question correctly. However, a few candidates mentioned the architect of NAM and its objectives that did not form part of the question. (b) Most candidates answered the question correctly with reference to the Cold War and the Super Powers forming the blocks. However, candidates need to explain the other factors which were equally important. (c) The role of Pt. Jawahar Lal Nehru was answered correctly by most candidates. 87 Suggestions for teachers Explain the relevance of the term NAM in the background of the formation of military alliances by the super powers, by not joining the alliance to boost their economic development and to promote world peace. Instruct students to learn all the facts that can assist in enhancing their performances. Guide students to remember all points which highlight the contribution of Nehru under different headings disarmaments, apartheid, maintenance of peace, etc. An organised way of learning the points will help them score better.

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MARKING SCHEME Question 10. (a) Non-alignment is the international policy of a sovereign state according to which it does not align itself with any of the power blocs and (ii) at the same time they actively participate in the world affairs to promote international peace, harmony and cooperation. (b) The four factors responsible for the Non-alignment:- (i) The global tension caused by the cold war - most of the newly independent countries of Asia and Africa realised that the division of the world into two power blocs was not in their interest and would endanger world peace. They therefore wanted to maintain distance from the super powers. (ii) Struggle against imperialism and neo colonisation:- The newly independent nations wanted to enjoy their newly acquired freedom and the power without being under the pressure of bigger nations. (iii) Right of independent judgment:- The newly independent nations were able to keep their own identity by not aligning with any of the power blocs. They did not want outside interference in solving their own problems. (iv) Use of moderation in relation to all big powers:- The newly independent nations wanted to promote good will and co-operation among the Asian and African nations to advance their mutual interests by maintaining friendly relations. (v) Restructuring international economic order:- The newly independent countries were economically backward. To boost their economic development they needed both capital and technical know how so they thought it would be worth while to take help from wherever they could without any strings attached with them. (vi) Formation of a collective force:- These newly independent nations realised that even though they did not have the military and economic power to influence international affairs, they had moral force and with their collective reason they could maintain and promote world peace. (c) Role of Jawahar Lal Nehru:1) It was Jawahar Lal Nehru who coined and used the word 'Non-aligned' first 2) In 1947, the Asian Relations Conference was convened in New Delhi. Nehru stressed on promoting peace and progress over the world 3) He along with the Chinese premier enunciated the Panchsheel - the five principles of peaceful co-existence. 4) He called upon the newly independent nations of Asia and Africa to keep themselves away from the politics of the two power blocs. 5) He advocated mutual respect for the sovereignty and territorial integrity of all the nations. 6) at the first NAM summit held at Belgrade, Nehru emphasised on negotiations for peace; negotiations for complete dis-armament and ending imperialism in all forms. 7) He condemned North Korean aggression against South Korea. 8) In 1956 India condemned the Anglo-French action in Egypt on the Suez Canal issue. 9) He did not approve of military or economic alliances like NATO, CENTO, SEATO initiated by USA to contain communism or the ones promoted by the Soviet Union like the Warsaw Pact, Cominform. 10) He believed that these alliances would encourage colonialism and imperialism and would produce a race for armaments. 11) He rejected communism and capitalism and strongly advocated the principles of democratic socialism. 88

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12) He was against the policy of apartheid in South Africa. India sponsored a resolution calling upon the nations to take diplomatic and economic steps against South Africa and to force her to give up the policy racial discrimination. 13) he was against the mad race for armaments and called for disarmament and abolition of stock piles of nuclear weapons. 14) India signed a treaty in 1960 for banning atomic tests. Topics found confusing /difficult: Meaning of the term Individual Responsibility . Single Integrated Judicial System. Objectives of the Indian National Army. Administrative and legislative powers of the cabinet. Aims / objectives of the Congress. Objectives of the Non-Cooperation Movement. Why did the Congress accept the Mountbatten plan and reasons to justify it acceptance. Ideologies of Fascism and Nazism. Japanese invasion of China. Consequences of the World War II with reference to the formation of UNO. Suggestions for students: Answer the question as what is being asked for, rather than what is known about the topic. Be brief and to the point. Study the entire syllabus and avoid selective study. Learn the basic concepts, ideas and facts including the important dates. 89

 

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Additional Info : ICSE 2014 - Board Model Answers, Marking Scheme & Examiner Comments for HISTORY & CIVICS H.C.G. Paper 1
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